Desalination and advanced water treatment systems

One of the serious problems of today’s societies is access to drinking water because 97% of the earth’s water resources are saline water and a small part of the remaining 3% of water resources are available as surface and groundwater resources. These resources cannot meet all water needs, and for the next few years, the world will face an unprecedented water shortage crisis in its lifetime. Limited water resources in some areas necessitate planning for the use of unconventional resources such as brackish and saline water resources that these resources should be used optimally. Desalination is the process of water purification to remove dissolved salt from water and is done by various methods. The most common classifications based on the type of operation to remove salts and other insoluble solids from water are:
1- Distillation
2- Reverse osmosis
3- Electrodialysis
4- Ion exchange
5- Freezing desalination